Prevalence and Associated Factors of Female Genital Mutilation among Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at a Tertiary Hospital in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria
Keywords:Prevalence, Associated Factors, Female Genital, Mutilation, Antenatal Clinic, Tertiary Hospital, Nnewi, South-East Nigeria
Background: Female genital mutilation, also referred to as “female genital cutting,” has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons”. It has remained largely uninvestigated in Nnewi. This study was carried out to determine the level of practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) and the influence of socio-economic factors on its practice among pregnancy women attending antenatal clinic in this area. Materials and Methods: The data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 400 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria. Vulvar examination was carried out to confirm the presence, type or absence of female genital mutilation using the WHO classification. Results: The prevalence of female genital mutilation is 167/400 (41.8%). Out of this, 24 (14.4%) had type I mutilation while 143 (85.6%) had type II mutilation. There were no type III and IV mutilation. The lowest trend in female genital mutilation was found in the age of 15-19 years. Female genital mutilation decreased with increasing level of education. Up to 120 (30%) of women were favourably disposed towards continuing the practice. Culture/tradition was the strongest reason for the practice. Conclusion: The prevalence of female genital mutilation is high in Nnewi and WHO type II variety is the most common. Culture/tradition was the strongest reason for the practice. The eradication of female genital mutilation must involve the identification of issues sustaining the practice in different localities and subsequent action supported both by logical persuasion following aggressive health education and by legislation.
Mpofu S, Odimegwu C, De Wet N, Adedini S,Akinyemi J. The relation of female circumcision to sexual behavior in Kenya and Nigeria. Women & Health. 2017 Aug 9;57(7):757-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2016.1206054
Adelekan B, Kareem YO, Abubakar Z, Bungudu K, Aderemi A, Goldson E, et al. Female genital mutilation and sexual behaviour by marital status among a nationally representative sample of Nigerian women. Reprod Health [Internet]. 2022;19(1):1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-022-379-w
Adinma JI, Agbai AO. Practice and perceptions of female genital mutilation among Nigerian Igbo women. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1999;19(1):44–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443619965958
Igwegbe AO, Egbuonu I. The prevalence and practice of female genital mutilation in Nnewi, Nigeria: the impact of female education. Journal
of obstetrics and gynaecology the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2000;20(5):520–2. https://doi.org/10.1080/014436100434749
UNICEF, 2016. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A global concern. https://data.unicef.org/resources/femalegenital-mutilationcuttingglobal-concern/
Fahmy A, El-Mouelhy MT, Ragab AR. Female genital mutilation/cutting. Reproductive Health Matters. 2010 p. 181–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-8080(10)36535-9
WHO. 2023. Female Genital Mutilation. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/newsroom/fact-sheets/detail/female-genitalmutilation (accessed January 31, 2023).
Bishai D, Bonnenfant Y-T, Darwish M, Adam T, Bathija H, Johansen E, et al. Estimating the obstetric costs of female genital mutilation in six
African countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. World Health Organization; 2010;88(4):281–8. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.09.064808
National Population Commission (NPC) (Nigeria) and ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, MD: NPC and ICF International; 2019.
Karmaker B, Kandala N-B, Chung D, Clarke A. Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications. International Journal for Equity in Health. BioMed Central; 2011; 10:20.
Kaplan-Marcusan A, Torán-Monserrat P, Moreno-Navarro J, Fàbregas MJC, MuñozOrtiz L. Perception of primary health professionals about Female Genital Mutilation: from healthcare to intercultural competence. BMC Health Services Research. BioMed Central; 2009; 9(101088677):11.
World Health Organization. Understanding and addressing violence against women: Female genital mutilation. World health organization;
Ali S, de Viggiani N, Abzhaparova A, Salmon D, Gray S. Exploring young people’s interpretation of female genital mutilation in the UK usuing a community-based participatory research approach. BMC Public Health. 2020 Dec; 20: 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09183-6
Krause E, Brandner S, Mueller MD, Kuhn A. Out of Eastern Africa: defibulation and sexual function in woman with female genital mutilation. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011;1420–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02225.x
Wuest S, Raio L, Wyssmueller D, Mueller MD, Stadlmayr W, Surbek D V, et al. Effects of female genital mutilation on birth outcomes in
Switzerland. BJOG an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2009; 116(9):1204–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471- 0528.2009.02215.x
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.