Reliability and Validity of the Hungarian Version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale


  • Hajnalka Sz. Mako Department of Personality and Health Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
  • Anita Deak Department of General and Evolutionary Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary



Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), reliability, validity, maternal anxiety and depression, dyadic adjustment, mother-foetus attachment.


Objectives: In this study, the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) were examined. Our primary aim was to investigate the validity and reliability of the MAAS. Additionally, we analyzed prenatal attachment in regard to socio-demographic determinants, characteristics of actual pregnancy, as well as the mothers' mental health during pregnancy and partnership adjustment. Background: Condon's MAAS has been one of the most frequently used instruments to assess prenatal attachment since 1993. Analyzing its psychometric properties is important regarding clinical practice, research of the topic and also the comparability of international research results. Methods: This study involved 253 women within different stages of pregnancy. Responses were assessed using the MAAS, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The Hungarian version of the MAAS has stable psychometric properties, high internal consistency and good internal and external reliability regarding the MAAS Total score, as well as its two subscales, the Quality of maternal prenatal attachment and the Intensity of preoccupation. Our results confirm that the development of mother-foetus attachment shows a positive association with the plannedness and wantedness of pregnancy, the number of gestational weeks and the level of partnership adjustment too. Furthermore, negative correlation was found with maternal depression and anxiety level during pregnancy. Conclusion: According to our results, the Hungarian version of the MAAS is a reliable and valid measure of maternal prenatal attachment from an early stage of pregnancy.


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