Public Health Approach Towards Reduction in Maternal Mortality in South Asia – (Pages 17-27)

S. Morone1, N. Lo Buono1, A. Giacomino1, R. Parrotta1, R. Arisio2, D. Katsaros2, N. Biglia3, G. Chiorino4, I. Rapa5, M. Volante5, E. Ortolan1 and A. Funaro1

1Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino; 2Città dellaSalute e della Scienza, Sant’Anna Hospital, Torino; 3Department of Oncological Gynecology, Umberto I Mauriziano Hospital, Torino; 4CancerGenomics Laboratory, Fondazione Edo ed Elvo Tempia Valenta, Biella; 5Department of Oncology, San Luigi Hospital, University of Torino, Torino, Italy

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14205/2309-4400.2013.01.01.5

Abstract: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer-related morbidity and mortality owing to the difficulty in detecting early-stage disease. Despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic strategies, only marginal improvement in patient outcome has been achieved. Hence, understanding the biological mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer development and progression is critical for its treatment. We reported that CD157 (also known as BST-1), a NAD-metabolizing ectoenzyme regulating leukocyte diapedesis in inflammatory conditions, is expressed in approximately 90% of epithelial ovarian cancers and high CD157 expression is associated with poor outcome in patients. Our experimental results showed that CD157 controls ovarian cancer progression by promoting mesenchymal differentiation. The increased aggressiveness associated with tumors with high CD157 can be reverted in vitro by CD157 gene silencing, or by monoclonal antibodies that block CD157. The overall picture inferred from our experimental and clinical findings suggests that CD157 could aid diagnosis by classifying ovarian cancers into molecular subtypes with different outcomes, CD157 could also represent a novel candidate as a target of antibody-based therapies. This review summarizes and assesses recent research into the emerging functions of CD157 in the control of ovarian cancer progression..

Keywords: Ovarian cancer, CD157, BST-1, tumor marker.