Incidence and Factors that Affect Anterior Sacral Foramen Leakage in Fluoroscopically Guided Caudal Epidural Steroid Injection - Pages 1-5

1,*Chan Hong Park, 1Hyen Jun Kim and 2Sang Ho Lee

1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Daegu, South Korea, 1Department of
Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Daegu, South Korea, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul,
South Korea

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31907/2310-9394.2021.09.01

Abstract:

Background: During the caudal epidural steroid injection (CESI), sacral foramen leakage can occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence and the correlation of anterior sacral foramen leakage with several factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent CESI. The epidural needle position and sacral foramen leakage (yes or no) in C-arm view were recorded. The following parameters were measured: 1) depth of the intervertebral disc at S1-S2, S2-S3, and S3-S4; 2) distances between the posterior borders of S1 and the apex of the sacral
hiatus; and 3) depths of S1, S2 the sacral canal. Results: Ninety-one subjects were evaluated. The patients were predominately women (60%) with a mean age of 65.5 ± 11.6 years. There was leakage in 58% (53/91) of patients. One-level leakage occurred in the largest proportion of patients (27%). Age, gender, needle tip position, the depth of the intervertebral disc at S1-S2, S2-S3, and S3-S4, the distances between the posterior borders of S1 and the apex of the sacral hiatus, and the depths of S1, S2 the sacral canal were not correlated with sacral foramen leakage. Conclusion: We found leakage in 58% of patients regardless of age, gender, needle-tip position, the depth of the intervertebral disc at S1-S2, S2-S3, and S3-S4, the distances between the posterior borders of S1 and the apex of the sacral hiatus, and the depths of S1, S2 the sacral canal. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that leakage can occur in any circumstance.

Keywords: incidence, factors, anterior, sacral, foramen, leakage, fluoroscopically, caudal, epidural, steroid, injection.